Lodz

Israel Poznanski would be stunned if he saw how his factory looked today. Those people who go to Manufaktura specifically, knows what to expect, however, if someone were to become lost on the way from the coast towards southern Poland and accidentally drive through Lodz, then between Zachodnia, Ogrodowa, Drewnowska and Karska Streets, the car will somehow spontaneously begin to slow down and the vision of the driver will be drawn to the left and to the right. Everyone is totally hypnotised by this overwhelming sight. No driver can explain how they ended up there or how they left from there. Where was he? He does not know. He only remembers one thing, Manufaktura. {panorama typ=showselected|id=8}Israel Poznanski would be stunned if he saw how his factory looked today. Those people who go to Manufaktura specifically, knows what to expect, however, if someone were to become lost on the way from the coast towards southern Poland and accidentally drive through Lodz, then between Zachodnia, Ogrodowa, Drewnowska and Karska Streets, the car will somehow spontaneously begin to slow down and the vision of the driver will be drawn to the left and to the right. Everyone is totally hypnotised by this overwhelming sight. No driver can explain how they ended up there or how they left from there. Where was he? He does not know. He only remembers one thing, Manufaktura. The outside has the appearance as it did in the 19th century, the brickwork, the colonnade of arches, the clocks and the decorative gates, the arches and the draperies. The interior exhibits total modernity, glass and steel. Manufaktura is 90,000m² of brick buildings, a market square that has a surface area of 3 hectares, decorative chandeliers and the longest fountain in Europe with dancing and shimmering bright coloured lights. Manufaktura has 3500 parking spaces, of which Israel Poznanski never dreamed of and also more than 600 trees. Manufaktura was the former factory that belonged to Izrael Poznanski, one of the most famous industrialists in the history of Lodz, who bought the barren land along Ogrodowa Street in 1871. Within three decades, he created a textile empire with weaving, spinning, bleaching and priming, dyeing, fabric printing and finishing. The complex also included workshops to repair and construct machinery, an ironworks, a foundry and shed, gasworks, a fire station, warehouses, railway sidings and factory administration offices, the owner's palace and residential buildings for the workers. Rebuilding of the Poznanski Empire of began in 2002 and the grand opening of the restored decoration of the city of Lodz took place on 17th May 2006. The showpiece of Manufaktura is the five-storey high former cotton mill which today is the four-star Andel's Hotel with the largest conference centre in Lodz. The building of un-plastered red brick has adorned Ogrodowa Street since the 1970s. The rest of the Manufaktura buildings are the "smaller brothers" of the spinning mill. The buildings are similar in appearance but are smaller in size. Manufaktura also has the "Gates of Time". The entrance to the modernist comfortable lounges of the temple of consumerism leads through the old, main gate of the factory through which the male workers in their warm boots and the women in their wool scarves used to walk to work. The "Gates of Time" is in the shape of a triumphant arch that is adorned with a clock which was chosen by Izrael Poznanski himself. The gates themselves, also chosen by the former owner, were cast in iron, mechanical and fully functional. Manufaktura has always been associated with business. Once a factory, now it has almost 300 retail outlets, 12,000m² of office space and a bank. The market square in Manufaktura serves as an arena for concerts and sports events. In summer there is a beach there and in winter there is an ice rink. In Manufaktura in Lodz, two different eras coexist. The 19th century is intertwined with the 21st century with is beauty and functionality. Not surprisingly as Manufaktura is highly regarded in prestigious architectural competitions.
Hotel Ambasador Centrum The four-star Ambasador Centrum Hotel is conveniently situated in the heart of the city, in Piłsudskiego Avenue. In the immediate vicinity of the hotel there are shopping and leisure centres. Moreover, the hotel is only five-minute walk away from the world-famous Piotrkowska Street where you can not only breathe the unique atmosphere of the city but also enjoy its numerous restaurants, pubs and bars. The air-conditioned hotel offers 139 luxurious rooms and 4 suites. Andel's Hotel Łódź A design hotel with history. The andel's Hotel Lodz, a jewel of architectural design, is housed behind the historic red-brick façade of a former textile mill. The building complex stands out for its impressive historic details, which create a striking yet interesting contrast to the modern architecture of the hotel. Qubus Hotel Łódź QUBUS HOTEL Łódź is a fully air-conditioned and monitored three-star hotel located in the city centre at the crossroads of important traffic routes: Mickiewicza and Żeromskiego Streets. „Ogień" restaurant is famous for serving dishes from all over the world, unique coffee flavours and a wide choice of alcoholic beverages, wines and cocktails. There is also a modern conference room equipped with high-quality audio-visual facilities. Iness Hotel It's a modern three stars air-conditioned business hotel with a car park, restaurant and conference rooms. Furnished in a modernist way, it has its a style and climate of its own.
Top 10 attractions in Lodz Izrael Poznański's ComplexIzrael Poznański's complex consists of Poznański's industrial-residential edifices with his monumental palace (often referred to as "the Louvre of Łódź"), the most elegant in Łódź. This is a magnificent example of the thriving textile industry in 19th century Łódź. Some of the buildings have recently been refurbished and turned into "Manufaktura" - one of the largest commercial centres in Europe. Priest's MillIts name is associated with the history of the site, which originally belonged to the rector of Łódź parish. In 1870 the grounds were purchased by the city's largest manufacturer, Karol Wilhelm Scheibler, who developed a huge industrial-residential estate. It comprised a factory, a spinning mill, shops, a school, a hospital, the owner's residence and employee housing estate. The fact that most of the buildings have been preserved until the present day means that Priest's Mill is perceived as one of the most valuable post-industrial architecture complexes. Edward Herbst's mansionBuilt in 1876, it was the first residence in Łódź which consisted of a villa and a garden. The Renaissance and Rococo-styled interiors, including the Mirror, Flower and Eastern Chambers and a Ball Room, are beautifully decorated. Nowadays the building houses the Museum of the Manufacture Interiors and Art Gallery, a branch of the Museum of Art in Łódź. The Old CemeterySituated at 38 Ogrodowa Street, the Old Cemetery was established in 1856. It is a complex of the oldest Christian graveyards in Łódź and includes Catholic, Evangelical and Orthodox tombs. Some of the tombs are unrivalled works of art, the most valuable one being Karol Scheibler's burial place. The artistic merits of the Heinzel family tomb, modelled on the Italian Renaissance, are worth noting; nowadays it serves as a Catholic cemetery chapel. The whole cemetery is a historical monument and a pearl of Neo-Gothic architecture. Karol Scheibler's PalaceThe Scheiblers were a family of manufacturers, owners of some of Europe's largest factories. They owned a lot of estates in Poland and abroad. The simple exterior of Karol Scheibler's Palace stands in contrast to its interiors, which are rich in varied architectural styles and lavish ornamentation. In spite of appearing so modest from the outside, it was one of the most imposing palaces of Łódź at the time. The building was used as a location for The Promised Land and other motion pictures. Nowadays it houses the Cinematography Museum, the only one of its kind in Poland. Piotrkowska StreetPiotrkowska St. - approximately 3.6 km (2.2 miles) long and lined with museums, art galleries, shops and boutiques - is a great place to be at any time of day or night. Lot of restaurants, pubs and clubs make Piotrkowska a perfect route for all-night-long clubbing. A majority of all the attractions in Łódź can be found either along this street or just a few blocks away. One of the unique features of this street are omnipresent rickshaws. ManufakturaManufaktura Culture-Trade-Entertainment Centre, situated at the heart of Łódź, is one of the largest commercial centres in Poland and Europe. Its location is significant — Izrael Poznański, a famous entrepreneur, established one of the largest textile factories here in the 19th century. Most of the exteriors of the original buildings - except for the main shopping gallery - have been preserved, giving the place a special ambience. The most representative part of the complex is the former five-storey cotton-spinning mill, which will soon be turned into a four-star hotel. Manufaktura, being certified by Polish Tourist Organisation, is not only a shopping centre, but also a cultural centre - one can visit artistic exhibitions and learn about the history of Łódź. It also has a lot to offer to people of all ages - adults and kids can go to an interactive museum, cinema or sports centre. Oscar Kon PalaceDespite lacking the exterior ornaments so popular in the nineteenth century, this building is of a unique nature. The reason for this is that in the late 1940s it was selected to become the headquarters of the famous Łódź Film School. Thanks to such celebrities as Kieślowski, Polański and Wajda, the building became famous not only in Europe, but all over the world. RadegastRadegast (Radogoszcz) is a former railway station, built during World War II next to the Łódź Ghetto to serve as its main transport link to the "outside world". During the Holocaust, this station was where Jews and other inhabitants of Łódź were gathered for transportation to death camps. In 2 years about 150,000 Jews passed through the station on the way to their demise.In 2005 this former station building was transformed into a Holocaust museum and a monument commemorating the Jewish victims was unveiled.
Piotrkowska Street is famous for its varied architecture. Beautiful 19th-century palaces and townhouses line the street. Most of them have recently been renovated, becoming great historical monuments. The list of must-see places on Piotrkowska includes:No. 2/4 – Church of the Holy Trinity. Used by both Evangelicals and Roman Catholics. Along with the Town Hall (located across the street) it used to be seen as a symbolic entrance gate onto Piotrkowska Street. No. 11 – Scheibler's Palace. Designed by Hilary Majewski, Łódź's most famous architect, it was modelled on the Italian late Renaissance. The Palace used to be a part of Scheibler's industrial complex. No. 14 — house of Jan Peter, one of the few houses preserved since the origins of the city until the present day. No. 29 — the former Wilhelm Landau's Bank House, which used to be a branch of a Warsaw bank. Nowadays it also houses a bank. The building, preserved until the present day, is among the most interesting examples of Art Nouveau architecture. No. 32 — Industrial Łódź Builders is one of the sculptures in the Gallery of the Great Citizens of Łódź series. It depicts three great manufacturers of the 19th century Łódź — Scheibler, Poznański and Grohman — signing a letter of intent for the development of the town. Rubbing the nose of one of the figures is believed to bring good luck. No. 37 — Jakub Szmulowicz House is regarded as the best architectural work of the early 20th century. The three-storey building has a bay window and a little patio with columns, and is crowned with a dome. No. 43 — Oskar Kon's house, built in 1902, has a lavishly ornamented facade. The decorations gave the house its popular name — The Tenement House Under the Chestnuts. No. 53 — Herman Kondstadt's house, built in 1885, includes a mansard roof and a cast iron balustrade on top of the building. It is often called House Under Atlantes, due to the Atlantes support columns. No. 72 — Grand Hotel, one of the most elegant hotels in Łódź, was erected on the site of a former textile factory. It has always been one of the most modern hotels in Poland. During renovation in 1912-1913 the interior and the facade were redesigned by David Lande.Star Alley of Łódź, located between Moniuszki Street and Rubinstein Passage, emphasises the city's cinematic traditions. Just like the world-famous Hollywood alley of film stars, the pavement is covered by brass stars with the names of the most famous Polish actors, directors, camera operators and film score composers. Each year new stars are unveiled.No. 86 — Gutenberg House, once owned by Jan Petersilge, who issued the first local newspaper. The facade ornamentations, modelled on the Middle Ages, northern Renaissance and Baroque, are strictly related to the printing profession, hence the sculpture portraying Gutenberg, the inventor of print. Nos. 98-148 — Several hundred metres of cobblestones with the names of inhabitants of Łódź — the patrons of this unique Monument to Citizens of Łódź at the Turn of the Millennium. The aim of the project, initiated by Piotrkowska Street Foundation, is to promote the street as the modern business and cultural centre of Łódź, and create an unconventional work of modern art. No. 100 — a former textile warehouse — a beautifully decorated building with typical Art Nouveau ornamentation: stylized flowers, the caduceus motif, and a cast iron balustrade with plant motifs. It housed the luxurious Esplanada Cafe attended by interwar intellectual circles in the 1930s. Since 1990 it has hosted a restaurant. No. 104 — the former residence of Juliusz Heinzl, one of the richest manufacturers in Łódź. Nowadays a seat of the city and voivodship authorities. No. 107 — Henryk Sachs House — one of Piotrkowska Street's most interesting buildings . The rich eclectic ornamentation of the facade includes emperor eagles, festoons, bull heads, mascarons, laurel leaves and swans. No. 112 — a monument and a passage dedicated to a prominent Polish theatre leader, Leon Schiller. A pub and summer gardens with a fountain make it a favourite meeting spot for high school students. No. 128 — the Schicht Family Townhouse. A richly ornamented facade with decorations such as plant leaves, geometric figures, human and animal masks, etc. No. 137 — Reymont's Coffer is one of the Gallery of Great Citizens of Łódź sculptures. This one is dedicated to the winner of the 1924 Nobel Prize in Literature, who came to Łódź in 1886 to gather inspiration for his Promised Land novel. No. 137/139 — J. R. Kindermann Palace, former residence of the manufacturer's family. It combines Renaissance features from Rome, Florence and Venice. The facade's mosaic depicts the harvest and transport of cotton. No. 143 — once owned by the Krusche and Ender Company. Art Nouveau polychromes, depicting flowers and dragons, make this building unique and distinct from other historic buildings of Piotrkowska Street. No. 152 — famous for a huge graffiti painting (900 sq. meters), depicting the symbolic sites of Łódź: a boat with the city's coat of arms, Freedom Square, the Old Town Hall, Church of the Holy Ghost. As the largest graffiti in the world it is internationally recognized as a Guinness World record.
Ghetto Litzmannstadt was erected in 1939 by the Third Reich Nazi occupant authorities. Approximately 160 thousand people were forcefully relocated to the ghetto — primarily Jews and Gypsies from the vicinity of Łódź, but later on also from Austria, the present-day Czech Republic and Germany. The area of the ghetto initially amounted to 4.1 sq. km., but it was later limited to 3.8 sq. km. The density of people forced to live here reached 42.5 thousand people per square kilometre. The ghetto functioned until August 1944. Unlike many ghettos in Poland, the Łódź ghetto was never destroyed. However, its remains are turning into ruins. When sightseeing at the Łódź ghetto, the following preserved sites deserve special attention:Bałucki Market Square, where the Jewish ghetto administration was located. The Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, where clothes were segregated upon the return of transports used to move the ghetto's residents. This caused the first concerns as to the fate of those residents Tenement houses at 84 Wojska Polskiego street, where more than 5000 Romany were held by the Germans with no access to running water or lavatories. The Survivors Park (Park Ocalałych), a grove erected at the initiative of ghetto survivors. Polish children's concentration camp with the Children's Martyrdom Monument. Radegast (Radogoszcz) station, the site from which ghetto residents were transported to death camps.The Łódź Jewish Cemetery is Poland's largest (42 ha) Jewish necropolis, established in 1892. More than 230 thousand people are buried here, of whom 45 thousand are those who died in the Łódź ghetto.
In the 19th century, famous manufacturing families made vast fortunes on cloth production and trade, developing Łódź's industry and making it known all overEurope. Huge complexes with the owners' mansions have been preserved to this day.Izrael Poznański's Complex at Ogrodowa StreetThe so-called Izrael Poznański's complex consists of Poznański's industrial-residential edifices and his monumental mansion. The buildings are some of the best-preserved industrial and residential edifices in Łódź. Some of the buildings have recently been refurbished and turned into "Manufaktura" – one of the largest commercial centres in Europe.Priest's Mill (Księży Młyn)During the nineteenth century the site, originally owned by the rector of Łódź parish, was incorporated into a newly established linen-cotton settlement called Łódka. Later on it was purchased by a manufacturer, Karol Wilhelm Scheibler. The industrial-residential complex he developed consisted of a factory, a spinning mill, shops, a school, a hospital, the owner's residence and employee housing. Over the years the grounds he owned came to exceed 500 ha. Most buildings of the complex have been preserved until the present day, which is why this site is regarded as one of the most valuable examples of post-industrial architecture.Kopisch's Bleachery (Bielnik Tytusa Kopischa)Kopisch's bleachery, named after its owner, was built in 1826. It is the oldest preserved site related to the textile industry in Łódź. Today the building is used by The City Of Łódź Office.Karol Scheibler's Palace (Pałac Karola Scheiblera)The Scheiblers were a family of manufacturers, owners of some of Europe's largest factories. They owned a lot of estates in Poland and abroad. The simple exterior of Karol Scheibler's Palace stands in contrast to its interiors, which are rich in varied architectural styles and lavish ornamentation. In spite of appearing so modest when seen from the outside, it was one of the most imposing palaces of Łódź at the time. The building was used as a location for The Promised Land and other motion pictures. Nowadays it houses the Cinematography Museum, the only one of its kind in Poland.Ludwig Geyer's White Factory (Biała Fabryka Ludwika Geyera)A spinning mill called "The White Factory" is part of an industrial complex owned by 19th century Łódź entrepreneur Ludwig Geyer. Over the years the building was rebuilt to accommodate the first steam engine in Łódź. The factory was named to emphasize its contrast with the red brick walls of most industrial edifices. Nowadays it houses the Central Museum of Textiles. Geyer's residence is located in a nearby park, and was also established by this famous entrepreneur.Priest's Mill Residence (Rezydencja Księży Młyn)Built in 1876, it was the first residence in Łódź which consisted of a villa and a garden. The Renaissance and Rococo-styled interiors, including the Mirror, Flower and Eastern Chambers and a Ball Room, are beautifully decorated. Nowadays the building houses the Museum of the Manufacture Interiors and Art Gallery, a branch of the Museum of Fine Arts in Łódź in Łódź.The Old Cemetery (Stary Cmentarz)This is a complex of the oldest Christian graveyards in Łódź and includes Catholic, Evangelical and Orthodox tombs. Some of the tombs are outstanding works of art. The whole cemetery is a historical monument and a pearl of Neo-Gothic architecture.
Manufaktura in Łódź is the biggest shopping, service and entertainment centre in Poland. It is situated in the centre of Łódź, enclosed by Zachodnia, Ogrodowa, Drewnowska and Karskiego Streets. The surface of the whole centre amounts to 27 hectares, including 9 hectares of refurbished monumental building development, 9,5 hectares of newly built surface and a spacious three-hectare market square. The market holds an ice rink in the winter and a spacious beach in the summer. There is also a 300-metre long (the longest in Europe) fountain in which the water dances to the rhythm of music. Approximately 200 million Euros was spent to construct the shopping centre which actually is a new part of town. The centre was built based on the structures created by Izrael Poznański, a textile magnate from Łódź. In thirty years, since 1871, on a surface equal to 27 soccer fields, a complex of weaving and spinning mills and auxiliary plants was constructed. In the shadow of the textile industry, which dominated in the city, several branches of heavy industry also developed: a department of machine repair and construction, ironworks, a foundry, a locomotive shed, gas-works, a fire station, storehouses, railway siding, and finally the counting house of the factory, housing for workers and the factory owner’s residence. Not too long ago an industrial city, today an entertainment and shopping centre. The revitalization which lasted a total of five years covered a dozen or so halls and post-production buildings. While rebuilding the old factory the architects tried to preserve the old atmosphere of the place. At the same time the most modern equipment was inserted into the old red walls. The old five-storey cotton spinning mill at Ogrodowa Street is the most often photographed site. It was built in 1877-78, as one of the first buildings of the plant. In 2008, it will be home to a luxurious four-star hotel and conference centre. The main shopping gallery made of glass and steel, contrasts with the old building development. Manufaktura, apart from world-famous and renowned Polish brands, offers a wide range of attractive services. It is possible to practice sports in the entertainment and recreation centre. On top of this a skate park, “roll arena“, bowling alley, fitness club and an artificial climbing wall with 28 starting points is located here. After all the physical effort a huge cinema is at your disposal.The cultural complex is even more interesting and distinguishes Manufaktura from other shopping-malls around the world. A branch of the Art Museum and the Museum of the City of Łódź are located there. Naturally, the building located mostly in the monumental buildings of the highest value, is the Factory Museum. Children and adults may give into the passion of discovering in the “Experymentatorium“ – a small but interactive museum of technique. Both ladies in the International Centre of Fashion Promotion and Gentlemen in the Car Centre will find something for themselves. Shopping and visiting may be interrupted for a moment to have a meal in one of the 20 restaurants. There are a total of 306 shops. The internal Rzemieślnicza Street is extremely interesting. In the street, little stalls and antique stores may be found and most importantly workshops of Polish craftsmen who masterfully perform work which is starting to disappear elsewhere in the world. In Manufactura something new happens every month. For example in December 2007 a great exhibition of aquaria was opened. Both typical aquarium projects and complete scientific undertakings representing various local water environments in a micro-scale may be seen there.See also:Centrum Manufaktura website 
Łódź and its surroundings Łódź with its 850,000 inhabitants is the second largest city of Poland. In the 19th century, textile factories began developing here with unimaginable rapidity. A testimony of industrial architecture, they carry the same message as the superb palaces of their former owners and still well preserved workers’ housing estates. Among the most glamorous residences are those of banker Maksymilian Goldfeder, publisher Jan Petersilge and factory-owner Juliusz Heinzel, all located in ul. Piotrkowska. In the same street stands the Grand Hotel, one of the largest and most modern European hotels erected at the turn of the 19th century. Łódź developed around ul Piotrkowaska, its 4.5 km main north-south axis with many Art Nouveau buildings, elegant shops, restaurants, pubs, offices and the most popular city’s promenade. The city’s cultural offer is very rich in special events. The leading events include the Festival of the Dialogue of Four Cultures (September – October), Łódź Ballet Meetings held every second year in May-June (next in 2007). At the far end of ul. Piotrkowska stands the White Factory – today home to the Museum of Textile Industry. The mansion of Leopold Rudolf Kindermann at ul. Wólczańska 31 passes for one of the most stunning Art Nouveau masterpieces in Poland. The formerPoznański family palace at ul. Więckowskiego 36 is housing a most intriguing collection of Polish modern art. Another palace and a former property of the factory owner Israel Poznański at ul. Ogrodowa 15 is occupied by the Historical Museum of Łódź. In its side wing is a museum of Arthur Rubinstein, the famous pianist and composer born in Łódź. The residence known as Księży Młyn is a good example of the economic leap performed by 19th century Łódź. After the costly renovation, the palace, situated at ul. Przędzalnicza 72, was turned into a museum presenting life of the Łódź factory owners to an amazing detail. At ul. Bracka 40 stretches one of Europe’s largest Jewish cemeteries with as many as 180,000 graves. The city is metamorphosing into a modern cultural metropolis. By young people, it is now mostly associated with techno culture. Around ul. Piotrkowska spreads the area of club life with its stock of bars, clubs and discos. Today Łódź is an important center of science and culture with many colleges, scientific and research institutes, opera, operetta, philharmonic hall, theatres and museums. After WW II, Łódź became the national center of cinematography. Roman Polański is a graduate of the city’s famous State High School of Film and Theater. Łowicz is well-known for its multi-colour folk costumes on display in the museum at Rynek Kościuszki 4, and the famousCorpus Christi processions. The 18th and 19th century houses line both old town squares. It is worth to drop a glimpse at the neoclassical town hall and the 15th century collegiate church with a later Baroque overlay. In Nieborów stands one of the most famous Polish palaces. The very well-preserved twostoried construction was raised in 1690-96. Today, the palace is home to the Warsaw branch of the National Museum, presenting a valuable collection of masterpieces once belonging to the Radziwiłł family. In Tum, north of Łódź, there is a Romanesque collegiate church of great historical value. The three-nave basilica founded in 1141-61 is believed to be Poland’s largest Romanesque church. See also:Lodz tourist website Hotels in Lodz Download PDF: Main Tourist Attractions in the City and Region of Łódź
Łódź, the largest city in Poland, aside from Warsaw, is a cultural phenomenon and a fascinating place inhabited by distinguished artists, scientists and industrialists. It is a modern city deeply rooted in tradition. A city of the multicultural heritage of Poles, Germans, Jews and Russians. A city of the industrial revolution, of the steam engine and the electrical era. It is the city housing the world-famous Modern Art Museum (Muzeum Sztuki Współczesnej) and the Lodz Film School (Łódzka Szkoła Filmowa). Łódź – a city of creative energy, vibrating with the pulse of our modern era. A dialogue of four cultures From the 19th century Łódź has been the Promised Land for many nations: Poles, Germans, Jews and Russians. Among them were many great industrialists, merchants, bankers, architects and writers who created a modern city and its culture. The Jewish community at the turn of the 20th century was estimated at two hundred thousand and in that number there were the great industrialists - Izrael Kalmanowicz Poznański, musicians - Artur Rubinstein and Aleksander Tansman, the distinguished architect - Dawid Lande and a master of poetry - Julian Tuwim. The Shoah, the darkest episode in the history of Europe, took the lives of all the members of the Jewish community in Łódź. The way of death led from the ghetto in Łódź, (called Litzmannstadt by the Germans), to the Nazi death camps in Oświęcim (Auschwitz) and Chełmno (Kulmhof). The remaining material symbols of the Jewish culture, the inherent parts of the cultural landscape of Łódź are historic buildings such as the centre of the Jewish community (no. 18, Pomorska Street), the Reicher synagogue (no. 28, Rewolucji 1905 Street) and the biggest necropolis in Europe covering an area of 4100 acres (no. 40, Bracka Street) where one hundred and sixty thousand graves and seventy thousand Jewish headstones, masebhas, are preserved. In the 1830’s German weavers and cloth makers came to Łódź in great numbers; the German industrial culture played a significant role in the development of the city. It has left priceless reminders of technical and urban history: factories and the haughty residences of the manufacturers, power and communication machinery, historic tenements, three Evangelical churches, theatres, schools and the cemetery next to Ogrodowa Street. The powerful textile empires created by industrialists of German origin, Scheibler, Geyer, Grohman and Heinzel, have survived to this day and are used as the foundations of various institutions. The over one hundred-year-old presence of Russians in Łódź is related to the time when Poland did not exist as a nation and the city, paradoxically, had its moment of dynamic development. The remnants of that Russian culture are the Eastern Orthodox Churches, chapels, the headquarters of governing bodies and examples of sepulcher art in Łódź cemeteries. The most significant trace of those times is the St. Alexander Nevsky’s Eastern Orthodox Cathedral (Kilińskiego Street). Built in the neo-Byznatine style on an octagon plan, the church houses a magnificent iconostas. The Festival of the Four Cultures, held annually in September, reflects this multicultural heritage of Łódź. City within the city The old textile districts illustrate the power and the investing momentum of those outstanding industrialists. In Tymienieckiego Street stands the oldest industrial plant in the city called Kopisch’s Bleachery (Bielnik Kopischa) (1826), and next to Piotrkowska Street is Ludwik Geyer’s White Factory (Biała Fabryka Ludwika Geyera), inside which the first steam powered engines were installed and used. Nowadays the building houses the Textile Museum (Muzeum Włókiennictwa) and the International Fabric Triennial (Międzynarodowe Triennale Tkaniny) – the most important of its kind in the world. One of the most interesting monuments of the industrial age in Łódź is Księży Młyn, built by Scheibler in the 1870’s. This city within a city, connected by a private railway network is comprised of residential houses, factory buildings, spinning mills, warehouses, workers’ houses, a hospital, a school, shops, a sports park and a power station. The massive red brick walls, mighty towers, monumental gates and chimneys are the symbols of the 19th century’s Industrial Revolution - Księżny Młyn remains one of the magnificent monuments to European industrial culture. Pearls of European Art Nouveau Leopold Kindermann’s villa built in the Art Nouveau style (Wólczańska Street) is the most beautiful example of this style in Poland. The picturesque, asymmetric block of the building topped by a high roof is finely encrusted with floral and figural motifs and stained-glass windows. Equally intriguing, surprising by the lightness of its form and stylistic elegance, is the Art Nouveau house (built in 1909) at no. 100 Piotrkowska Street (the famous Esplanada restaurant) distinguishing itself with its fine ornamentation and artistic, hand-wrought balustrades. Equally beautiful is Reinhold Richter’s villa (no. 6 Skorupki Street) worth seeing for the ornamentation of its front elevation. Łódź is a particular encyclopedia of the Art Nouveau style in its different functional variants: villas, governmental buildings, factories and outbuildings. The old Łódź necropolis contains many Art Nouveau tombstones and sculptures.The Łódź Film School For those who enjoy the cinema all over the world the name ‘Filmówka’ or Łódź Film School evokes a smile and words of respect. Among the hundreds of graduates of this school, world-famous directors, cameramen and actors there are Academy Award Laureates and winners of prestigious prizes in Cannes: Krzysztof Kieślowski, Roman Polański, Andrzej Wajda and Krzysztof Zanussi. The Karol Wilhelm Scheibler palace contains the only Museum of Cinematography in Poland. It has a collection of exhibits relating to the history of film technology and production. Łódź is host to the most important festival of camera work in the world - Camerimage, where the most outstanding cameramen are awarded prizes. Other creators in cinema also have their festivals in Łódź Mediaschool - The International Festival of Film and Television Schools, Reanimacja - The Festival of Animation, The Festival of Nature films and the Forum of European Cinema. Cinema can also be found in the city landscape along the Alley of the Stars (Aleja Gwiazd) - the pavements of Piotrkowska Street - with plaques with the names of stars of Polish cinema inscribed on them. Factory of trade and entertainment The modern center of art, trade and entertainment, Manufaktura, has been created inside the former ‘factory empire’, built from characteristic red brick, once belonging to one of the most prominent owners of many industrial buildings, Izrael Kalmanowicz Poznañski. There are also plans to open a four-star hotel belonging to the Andels chain, in the five storey cotton factory (170 meters in length). The form and the quality of the adaptation of the building, the functionality program and the interior aesthetics are highly regarded and have been nominated for the international MIPIM award in the category of trade centers. Manufaktura contains an IMAX cinema, restaurants, bowling alleys, a climbing wall, a museum and a number of boutiques and shops of reputed brands. Just round the corner in Ogrodowa Street in the Pałacu Poznańskich (the Poznański family Palace), the biggest industrial residence in Europe, is the Museum of the History of the City of Łódź (Muzeum Historii Miasta Łodzi). Walking through the museum halls we can learn a great deal about the history of the city, the interiors of mansions arranged according to the tastes of those rich industrialist, and the history of outstanding citizens of Łódź. One of the ‘symbols’ of the city is the avantgarde artistic group, Łódź Kaliska, renowned for their sophisticated happenings and exploits rebelling against the artificiality of ‘elitist art’ and mass culture. City street salon Piotrkowska Street is the cultural center of Łódź, the axis of the development of the 19th century city and a contemporary representative salon. Among the street’s interesting points is Liberty Square (Plac Wolności), which is in the shape of a regular octagon. The Town Hall – one of the oldest historical buildings of industrial Lodz, stands on one side of the square, and next to it, on the opposite side of Piotrkowska Street, is the Catholic Church of the Holy Ghost, together with the Archeological and Ethnographical Museum. In the centre of the square stands the characteristic monument of Tadeusz Kościuszko, visible almost from any point on the 4 km long Piotrkowska Street. On both of its sides there are numerous restaurants, artistic basements and clubs and an endless gallery of shops and boutiques with clothes produced by well known Polish and European companies. Piotrkowska Street never falls asleep. When there’s no trade there’s entertainment, when there’s no singing there’s dancing. Many concerts, happenings, sports competitions and Fairs take place along this street - the cultural salon of the city. Piotrkowska Street is also a unique and rich gallery of urban architecture. The outstanding monuments are Hermana Konstadta’s palace (no. 53) with the characteristic atlases, the banking house of Maksymilian Goldfeder (no. 77), the tenement house of Jan Peterslige (stonemason) with the statue of Jan Guttenberg on its facade (no. 86), Juliusza Kindermanna’s house with the Venetian mosaic (no. 137) and the headquarters of the Krusche Ender company (no. 143), delightful for its floral decoration. The side wall of the tenement house at no. 152 is decorated with the biggest wall graffiti in Poland presenting Łódź city landscapes. At Piotrkowska (no. 265) stands the tallest church in the city, the St. Stanislaw Kostka’s Metropolitan Cathedral. Its towers exceed 100 m in height. Over the last few years Piotrkowska Street has started to play the role of a sculpture gallery with figural monuments incorporated into it and devoted to the people, events, and the monuments of three manufacturers; the statues of the writer Reymont’s strongbox, Jaracz’s Fotel, (distinguished director and actor), Rubinstein’s piano and the characteristic Tuwim bench. A special homage to the citizens of Łódź is the Monument of the People constructed at the turn of the millennia made from thirteen thousand bricks with the names of the donors cut into them. 
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